The above quotation from Elaine and Robert Rosenthal's article "The Portuguese Dreyfus" was chosen by the authors to open the book "Ben-Rosh ---- A Biography of Captain Barros Basto, The Apostle of the Marranos".
Did Barros Basto's cause really fail? and why?
Barros Basto, as a person, had a bitter end. He was dismissed from the army and dishonoured and his yeshiva was closed. Political enemies, and the hatred of the catholic clergy who felt threatened by him, combined to take advantage of internal dissensions among the Jews, and destroy him as a person.
Yet, those Jews who opposed Barros Basto's work were convinced of their own righteousness, and each of them was sure of acting in the best interests of the Jewish faith and of the marranos. Were they right? It is important to be sure of this, lest the same mistakes be repeated in our days.
Barros Basto was by nature a man of principle and of action, devoted to the betterment of the world and of humanity. He was one of the founders of scouting in Portugal; he fought alongside, and worked with, the republicans who overthrew the monarchy; he even founded a new religion - Oryam - in an attempt to mould the character and the way of life of the "mountaineers" of his birthplace.
From his loving grandfather he learned the secret of his family’s Jewish origin. This revelation led him to try to force his way into the mainstream of Judaism, despite the opposition of the Jewish community in his country.
His ancestors were "New Christians", descendants of those Jews who had been forcibly converted to Christianity in 1497. But they were not necessarily crypto-Jews or marranos . The moment he returned to Oporto and began to form a Jewish community with the few Ashkenazi residents of the town, he was surprised at the number of his compatriots who appeared before him and admitted having practiced Jewish rites in secret.
Fascinated with these revelations, Barros Basto travelled extensively through the villages and towns of northern Portugal, in order to get acquainted with these crypto-Jews, and to learn more about their religious practices and their way of life.
He made no attempt to change such beliefs and practices. What he did do was devote himself to stripping the secrecy from their way of life, to convincing them that the Republican revolution - in which he had taken part - had opened a new era of freedom for the still practicing descendants of the Jewish victims of forced conversion. Unfortunately, he did not know then just how shortlived this freedom was to be.
Barros Basto’s "Work of Redemption" was intended to lead the marranos into practicing their own version of the Jewish religion openly and without fear, and to help them, by all available means, to recover and bring up to date all the information about Judaism which they had lost during the preceding four centuries.
The "Portuguese Marranos Committee" of London, which was formed as soon as the news of the discovery of secret Jews in Portugal became known in the Jewish World , approved Barros Basto’s work and gave it financial support.
Not so Maurits Van Son, of Amsterdam, and his "Nederlandsche Pro-Marrano Vereeniging".
In his booklet "Verleden en heden der Marranen in Portugal" , Van Son, an orthodox Jew, wrote: "... They don’t ask for anything, but their eyes speak for their will to be admitted into the assembly of Israel."
They did not ask for anything, it’s true. They don’t ask for anything even today. Their faith, and their belief, were strong enough to keep them Jews - even in the eyes of their Catholic neighbours - for 400 years. Why then should they need to ask to be admitted? They believed in the Captain; they were ready to take the hand that he extended to them, and eager to learn what he was teaching them - the history of their people and their own history, the meaning of their own Judaic traditions, and the comparable practices of the rest of the Jewish World. By no means, however, were they ready to give up the faith and the practices which they had learned from their grandmothers.
Manuel Marques, a one-time Catholic priest who has since left the priesthood to return to secular life, had this to say about the faith of the marranos: "I have changed, because everything has changed around me.
It was the contact at the moment of death that impressed me the most. I felt their faith to be so strong that I could almost touch it. This became a big problem for me: I had come to Belmonte in order to convert the Jews , to carry on the work of my predecessors, but they were the ones who converted me."
Rabbi Baruch Ben-Jacob, a "haham" from Salonica, whom the Dutch committee hoped to appoint as Chief Rabbi of the marranos, decided to decline the position, because he could not go along with the Captain’s views, nor with the attachment of the marranos to their traditions.
On his departure, after he had told them that old traditions would have to be abandoned and replaced by orthodox practices, the old women of Braganחa wondered "is Judaism a religion of what to eat and drink and such material things?".
Yet Rabbi Ben-Jacob, in his report spoke of his emotion: "I could not hold back the hot tears in my eyes. Thus amidst a great enthusiasm of faith and religion, I departed sorrowfully from such an impressive assembly".
The Jewish community of Lisbon had mixed feelings about the discovery of the marranos. No Jewish heart could remain unmoved, in the face of the phenomenon of people who were strong enough to keep their Jewish faith for over 400 years. Some of the Jews of Lisbon were in favour of accepting the marranos as they were; others claimed that the marranos had already become "alien corn", and that any contact with them would endanger the precarious status of the small Jewish community of Portugal, which was itself seen as alien by the authorities. Finally, there were those among the leaders of the community who, after consulting the chief rabbi of Erets-status Israel, were willing to accept the marranos as brethren, provided only that these would undertake to observe orthodox practices, and accept the hegemony of the Lisbon community.
Under severe pressure as a result of the problems created in his army service by religious enemies, the Captain committed several grave mistakes in the management of the Community which he led, and allowed personal feuds and jealousies to develop and flourish among those persons whom he selected to replace him in his work, during his absences.
The first anonymous denunciation to the police was seen by the latter as an internal community matter, "the Jews washing their dirty linen".
Nevertheless it was the first skirmish in the long campaign of civil and military persecution against Barros Basto, which in the end was to destroy him physically, though never in spirit.
The repercussions of the persecutions against the captain, the closure of the yeshiva, the the freedom of religion.
Growing strength of the reactionaries in the Roman Catholic Church and of the political police, and last but not least, the rise of Nazism in Germany, all worked together to frighten those marranos who had believed the Captain, and who had prematurely celebrated the freedom of religion.
The return to clandestine Jewish worship was very hard, especially for the younger generation. In townlets and villages, which when Barros Basto first arrived counted hundreds of practicing crypto-Jews, there remain today only a few individuals, sometimes only pointed out as "Jews" but ignorant of any Jewish tradition. From time to time a son or a daughter of such a family finds his or her way to full conversion, and seeks a place in mainstream Judaism.
But there is no easy path from a secretive marrano home to the Synagogue with all its internal divisions. Traditionally, Judaism is not a religion of proselytism. Seldom are newcomers received with love and open arms. Judaism is an ethnic religion, and the Orthodox rabbis are usually suspicious of those who tap at their doors. The marranos themselves are also cautious and suspicious. These new searchers suffer, and resent the cold welcome which they usually receive.
Nevertheless, there do exist examples of a successful relationship, eventually leading to full integration. The crypto-Jewish community of Belmonte has succeeded in surviving the crisis. It is the only such community in Portugal to have done so.
Perhaps because the influence of Barros Basto in Belmonte was less strongly felt (although some young men of Belmonte attended the Yeshiva in Oporto, and never returned home...), perhaps because of some sort of a feud that existed between Barros Basto and Samuel Schwarz, the "discoverer" of the Belmonte community, perhaps because Belmonte has been widely publicized by Schwarz and several other visitors - the crypto-Jews of Belmonte were eventually offered full integration into the mainstream of Judaism.
Twenty years ago, the present Catholic priest of Belmonte claimed in a letter to this author that he personally was against giving Catholic sacraments to people who, as an open secret, kept the Mosaic law at home.
"Somebody should come from Israel to convince them that now they are free to practice their religion in public. Let them build a synagogue and I will be the first to help."
Father Registo’s wish became true. A synagogue was built in Belmonte’s old Jewish quarter, "Marrocos."
Two factors have influenced the acceptance of the change by the Belmontese marranos: the much wider choice of marriage partners which followed the end of endogamy within the strict family clan (this was already causing serious health problems) and the end of religious matriarchy.
This article is being written shortly before the presentation to the public of the biography of Arthur Carlos de Barros Basto at the Kadoory Mekor Haim Synagogue, in Oporto, which he himself proudly inaugurated in 1938, after all his years of trouble.
The synagogue was closed for many years, but has reopened now for the benefit of a community of newcomers. Marranos are seldom seen there.
One year earlier, on December 5th.1996 (the date on which, 500 years previously, the Edict of Expulsion was signed by king Manuel I), a synagogue - Bet Eliahu - was inaugurated in Belmonte.
Most of the Belmonte community have converted to Judaism. But is that the appropriate verb to use? "Converted"? People whom even the priests themselves, let alone the rest of the population, called by no other name than "judeus" (Jews)? Did they need to be "converted"?
They now pray in Hebrew; men wear talitoth and tephilin, women go in the streets of Belmonte with fancy hats no different than in Bnei Brak and Mea Shearim.
However, in the secrecy of their homes, they still light the same traditional shabbat oil lamps, and bake their own matsot..... after being for so many years "crypto-Jews", hiding their religious acts from the eyes of the priests, they have become "crypto-marranos", hiding their marrano activities from the rabbis.
Is there any reason for Orthodox mainstream Judaism to claim exclusive proprietorship of the Jewish faith? Should not such communities as the Falasha (Ethiopian), Ben Yisrael (India), the Marranos and any other bona-fide Jewish groups (including Conservative and Reform Jews) be considered equal members --- different, perhaps, but equal nonetheless --- of the same religion?
Naturally those who choose orthodox Judaism should be accepted according to the rules of Halakhah. Their motives might be the absence of solid traditions in their families, or even the wish to marry a member of a different Jewish group. But otherwise, why should they need anybody’s approval to be what their forefathers taught them to be?
Barros Basto’s biography is witness to the difficulty of freeing oneself from the stigma, when one is descended from Jews.
Copyright 1997, 1998, 1999 Inacio Steinhardt
BOOKS AUTHORED BY BARROS BASTO:
"Birkat Ha-mazon. Gracas apos a refeicao (segundo o rito portugues) Porto - Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1940. 12p.
"Dor e Fe. (Oracoes segundo o rito portugues, pelos doentes, moribundos e mortos) - Porto, 1928. 51p.
"Hagadah shel Pessah (ritual de ceia pascal) -Porto 1928. 40p.
"Hallel (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, Instituto Teologico Isreaelita, 1940-41. 8p.
"Hazkarat ha-methim *Oracao de saudade dos mortos) - Porto, 1945. 7p.
"Nehilah ou Encerramento de Kipur (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, 1929. 39p.
"A noite de Kipur (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, 1929. 53p.
"A noite de Shabbath (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, 1927. 34p
"A oferenda de Shabbath (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, 1927. 32p.
"Oracao antes de deitar (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1940. 8p
"Oracao matinal de Shabbath (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, 1939. 54p.
"Oracoes para a vespera de Shabbath (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1940. 32p.
"Saida de Shabbath (segundo o rito portugues) - Porto, 1929. 31p.
"Kether malkhut (Coroa Real) por Salomao ben-Gabirol. Traduzida,, anotada e acompanhada de uma biografia do autor." Porto, 1927. 49p.
"Entre Montanhas (quadros oryamitas)" - Porto, 1913. 64p. (com o pseudonimo de "A. Ben Rosh")
"A Labareda (quadros oryamitas) - Porto, 1919. 55p. (com o pseudonimo de "A. Ben Rosh")
"H'ad Gadiah. (Influencias hebraicas no folclore portugues)" - in Revista de Estudos Historicos 3 (1928) (separata com 27p..) tem 2a. edicao, Porto, Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1946. 45p.
"Judeus e Proselitos" -(Colectanea organizada por ...) - Porto, 1946. 45p.
"Linhagens de Arthur Ben-Rosh" Porto, 1920. 52p.
"Memorial de Preceitos Israelitas" - Porto, Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1931-32. 2 vol.
"Nao por forca, mas pelo meu espirito. Darush (sermao) pronunciado pelo 'lider' dos marranos, Arthur Carlos de Barros Basto (Abraham Israel Ben-Rosh) na cerimonia da dedicacao solene da Sinagoga Kadoorie Mekor H'aim no Porto, no dia 16 de Janeiro de 1938 (15 de Shebat de 5698). Porto, 1938, 9p.
"As noites de Hanukah, ou da Festa dos Macabeus." - Porto, Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1943. 62p.
"Shahar" - Porto, 1910. 31p. Teve 2a. edicao-Porto, 1920.
"Catecismo Israelita. Elementos de Instrucao Religiosa e Moral". Porto. Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1944. 58p.
"Israel" -revista - Ano I: Setembro de 1927. Lisboa, Associacao da Juventude Israelita Hehaber. Editor: Rubem Ezaguy. Director: A.C. Barros Basto
Lipman, Benjamim - "A Moral do Sinai (Elementos de teologia moral ensinados pela Biblia e pelo Talmud)" - Traduzido sob a direccao de A. C. de Barros Basto
"A Liberdade dos Cultos na Legislacao Portuguesa". Porto, Instituto Teologico Israelita, 1946. 10p
"Terras de morte e de fe" - Porto, 1919
BOOKS AND ARTICLES ABOUT BARROS BASTO:
"Captain Barros Basto sees bright future for Judaism in Portugal" - American Hebrew 22, Nov. 1929, p. 89
Roth, Cecil - "L'apotre des Marranes" Paris 1930. 29p.
Bension, Ariel -"Une communaute de Marranes au Portugal." Les Archives Israelites 82 (1921): 178-79, 186-8
7Bension, Ariel - "An echo of the Inquisition" - Jewish Chronicle, 21 Oct. 1921, pp 16-17
"La Confession d'un Ancien Marrane" Univers Israelite 82 (10 Sept. 1926): 6-8.
Friedenberg, Daniel M. - "The Jewish catacombs of Portugal" Midstream (Spring 1960): 2-4+
Roth, Cecil - "The apostle of the Marranos" Jewish Guardian, 6 Jun. 1930 pp. 7-8
Javal, Lily Jean-"O que dizem de nos" in Halapid 31 (1930) 3-5
Beller, Jacob - "The Descendants of the Marranos. The "New" Jews of Portugal..." Jewish Voice Pictorial -Apr. 1944. pp. 16+
"The Marranos in Portugal. Newspaper founded" - Jewish Chronicle 15 Mar 1929 - p. 27
Carlbach, Esriel - "Exotische Juden; Berichte und Studien".- Berlin, 1932. 246p. Mit dem Kreuz-Marranen:pp 209-38.
Bato, Yom-Tov Ludwig - "Was geschah mit Barros Basto? Um das Schicksal der Marranen in Portugal" in Israelitisches Wochenblatt, 6 Okt. 1961, pp 17-19
Cohen, Israel - "The rebirth of Israel: a memorial tribute to Paul Goodman. London, E. Goldston, 1952..338p Paul Goodman and the Portuguese Marranos: pp. 7-10
Comunidade Judeo-Marrana de Lisboa - Relatorio e contas referentes ao ano findo em 30 de Elul de 5695 [1934-35] - Lisboa, 1935. 10p
Javal, Lily Jean- "Sous le Charme du Portugal; visages et paysages". Paris, 1931. 275p.
Kliersfeld, Joseph - "Sare tsava mi-Yisrael" [Famosos militares judeus]. Jerusalem, R. Mass, 1941. 257p em hebraico. pp. 227-234.
Klee, Hans - "Bei den Marranes in Portugal" In: "Melanges dedies au Dr. B.A. Tschelenoff a l'occasion de son 80e. anniversaire, pp. 125-42. Geneve. 1947.
Meneses, Afonso Falcao Cota Bourbon e - " A significacao do anti-judaismo contemporaneo". Lisboa, Livraria Portugalia, 1940. 64p.
Portuguese Marranos Committee - "Survey by the Portuguese Marranos Committee, London, 1926 to 1938", London, 1938. 26p
"Revista de Estudos Hebraicos" - vol. I; 1928. Lisboa, Instituto de Estudos Hebraicos de Portugal. Ed. M.B. Amzalak.
Prinz, Joachim -"The secret Jews". New York, Random House, 1973. 207p.
--- "A profanacao anglo-judaica dos lugares santos. A maconaria e o judaismo internacional ao servico do imperialismo britanico" Lisboa, Edicoes "Vita Nova" 194-. 59p.
Ramos, Jorge - "A mitologia ariana e o plagiato judaico"" Estudo historico-filosofico. Lisboa? 1939. 72p
Roth, Cecil - "The rebirth of the Marranos: a romantica survival" - Contemporary Review 143 (May 1933) 606-612.
Schwarz, Samuel - "Os Cristaos-Novos em Portugal, no seculo XX". Lisboa, 1925, xxiii, 110p.
Saa, Mario - "A Invasao dos Judeus" - Lisboa, 1925. 309p.
Lencastre, Guilherme de - "Portugal cristao-novo ou os Judeus na Republica. Uma entrevista celebre" [com Mario Saa] - Lisboa, 1921. 16p.
Cabreira, Antonio - "A Voz do Sangue: correccao ao livro "A Invasao dos Judeus" Lisboa, 1925. 48p
Samuel, Wilfred Sampson - "The Marranos" In: "A Sephardi miscellany" - Vol. I. pp. 25-34 - London 1929.
Schwarz, Samuel - " La Pascua entre los cristianos nuevos de Portugal." - Judaica (Buenos Aires) no. 128-9 (Feb-marzo 1944): 111-12.
Veloso, Francisco - "Perante o Racismo; novos subsidios acerca dos "Protocolos dos sabios de Siao" - Prefacio e traducao de ... -Lisboa, 1939, 39p.
Schwarz, Samuel - "The renaissance of Judaism among the Portuguese Marranos." - Reform advocate 19 Oct. 1929, pp. 334-35
Shababo, Jacob - "Discursos pronunciados na festa de recepcao a Sua Ema. o Rabino Jacob Shababo" - Lisboa, Comunidade Cripto-Marrana de Lisboa, 1935. 16p.
Slouschz, Nahum - "Ha-Anussim be-Portugal" [Os Marranos em Portugal] (em hebraico) - Tel Aviv, 1932. 185p.
Slouschz, Nahum - "Ha-Anussim be-Portugal" [Os Marranos em Portugal] (em hebraico) - in Reshumoty 5, (1927): 3-58; 6 (1930): 3-54.
Slouschz, Nahum - "Die heutigen Marranen in Portugal" - Oesterreichische Wochenschrift 29 (1912): 619-2
0Slousch, Nahum - "Zur Evidenzhaltung der Convertiten. Die heutigen Marranen in Portugal" Archiv fur judische Famielenforschung no.4-6 (1913): 25:27
Son, M. Van - "Verleden en heden der Marranen in Portugal" [O Passado e o Presente dos Marranos em Portugal]. Amsterdam, 1930. 16p
Tarso, Paulo de - "Crimes da Franco-Maconaria Judaica" - Guarda, 1928. 170p
Wolf, Lucien - "Essays in Jewish History" - London, 1934. 480p. "The Marranos in Portugal": pp. 363-82
Wolf, Lucien - "Report on the 'Marranos' or Crypto-Jews of Portugal - Presented to the Alliance Israelite Universelle and the Council of the Anglo Jewish Association, March 1926" - London, 1926. 19p
-------------- -"Marranos Eager to Return to Judaism" - American Hebrew, 29 Aug. 1924, p. 441
Benarus, Adolfo - "Return of the Marranos"- Jewish Guardian 23 Jan 1925-p.5 e mais correspondencia em 6 Fev. . 1925, p. 6; 20 Fev. 1925, p.3; 13 Mar. 1925, p. 6.
Benarus, Adolfo - "The Marranos of Portugal" - Jewish Chronicle 13 Fev. 1925, p. 28
----------------- - "The Portuguese Marranos. Will the AJA [Anglo Jewish Association] Investigate?" Jewish Guardian 13 Mar. 1925, p.6
Silva Rosa, Jacob S. de - "Marranos [Nieuw-christenen) in Portugal in the 20ste eeuw" The Vrijdagavond, 31 Jul 1925, pp. 280-82
Jessurun Cardoso, D.S. -"De Marranen in Portugal" - De Vrijdagavond, 13 Nov. 1925, pp. 103-105
------------------ - "les Marranes du Portugal" Les Archives Israelites 87 (1926): 59
Mentor (pseudonimo) - "Marranos"- Jewish Chronicle 30 Abr 1926, pp 9-10
Schwarz, Samuel - "Mr. Lucien Wolf in Portugal" Jewish Guardian 12 Fev. 1926. E tambem em De Vrijdagavond 12 Fev 1926, p. 1
----------------- "The Portuguese Marranos" Jewish Guardian 12 Mar. 1926-p. 1
----------------- "Mr. Wolf's Repport on his mission to Portugal" Jewish Guardian 12 Mar. 1926 - p. 4
Wolf, Lucian - "The secret Jews of Portugal" - Jewish Guardian, 16 Abr. 1926, pp.5-7; 23 Abr. 1926, pp.9-10
Anglo Jewish Association. "Annual Report. 55th. (1926) London "The Marranos in Portugal": pp. 13-14.
Central Conference of American Rabbis.- "Yerabook" -Portuguese Marranos: vol. 37 (1927): 68-70, 80; 38 (1928): 167-70; 39 (1929): 24-26, 197.
-------------------"Die Juden in heutigen Portugal" - Israelitisches Familienblatt, 5 Mai 1927, p.2.
Mocatta, Edward Lumbrozo - "The Portuguese Marranos: an appeal." - Jewish Chronicle 22 Abr 1927, p. 20.
Barnett, Lionel D. - "The Marranos of Portugal" -Jewish Chronicle 23 Dez 1927 -p.20.
Portuguese Marranos Committee - "Progress of Jewish Reclamation." Jewish Chronicle 23 Dez. 1927, p.20.
----------------- "Die Entdeckung der portugiesischen Marannen" [Samuel Schwarz] Menorah (Vienna) 5 (1927), p.140
----------------- " The dry bones of Israel" -New Palestine 29 Ago. 1927, p.140.
----------------- "Die Marranen-Gemeinde in Braganza" - Israelitisches Familienblatt, 27 Set. 1928, p. 3.
----------------- " Le Retour des Marranes au Judaisme"- Univers Israelite 83 (27 Jan. 1928: 585.
----------------- "Nouvelles des Marranes du Portugal." Univers Israelite 83 (17 Fev. 1928): 680.
----------------- "Les Marranes du Portugal" - Les Archives Israelites 90 (1929): 38-39.
Ehrenpreis, Marcus - "Die Marranen in Portugal" Gemeindeblatt der Judischen Gemeinde zu Berlin (Nov. 1929): 575-77.
Basto, Arthur Carlos de Barros - "Unter portugiesischen Marranen" - traducao em alemao de Medina Azara [i.e. Maximo Jose Kahn] - Israelitisches Familienblatt 11 Jul. 1929, p. 7.
---------------- "Viaje entre los caballeros marranos" - Revista de la Raza (Fev, 1929): 25-26.
Javal, Lily Jean- "Roch-Hachana a Porto" - Univers Israelite 85 (18 Out. 1929): 71-73.
Javal, Lily Jean- "A Bragance, chez les Marranes" - Univers Israelite 85 (22 Nov. 1929): 233-37
Bouchis, H. - "Les Marranes du Portugal" - Les Archives Israelites 91 (1930): 18.
Mintz, Benjamim - "Von den portugiesischen Marannen" - Der Aufsteig 1 (1930-32): 45-49.
Mintz, Benjamim - "Todos judeus. Unter den portugiesischen Marannen" Der Aufsteig 1 (1930-32): 248-52.
--------------- "Mme. Lily Jean-Javal et les Marranes" - Univers Israelite 85 (7 Mar. 1930): 717.
Javal, Lily-Jean = "Une synagogue s'eleve a Porto" - Univers Israelite 86 (5 Dez. 1930): 363.
Son. M. Van - "De terugkeer naar het Jodendom van de Marranen in Portugal" - De Vrijdagavond - 11 Abr. 1930 -p. 30-32.
Goodman, Paul - "Among Portugues Marranos" - Jewish Chronicle supp. 130 (Oct. 1931): iv-vi.
---------------- "The Portuguese Marranos Committee" - Jewish Guardian 8 Maio 1931, p. 4.
Oppenheim, Sidney - "With the Marranos in Portugal" - Weekly Review: a liberal Jewish magazine, 21 Ago. 1931, pp.7-9, 11.
Goodman, Paul - "Une visite aux Marranes du Portugal" -Les Archives Israelites 93 (1932): 67, 71
Mintz, Benjamim - "Customs of the modern Maranos" - Current Jewish Record (Maio 1932): 62-64 [traducao do publicado no Der Aufsteig]
Goodman, Paul - "Maranos in Portugal" - Jewish Chronicle 5 Ago. 1932, p. 11
-------------- - "A letter from Lisbon" Jewish Chronicle 28 Out. 1932, p. 22
Goodman, Paul - "Chez les Marranes du Portugal" - Paix et Droit (Fev. 1932): 6-8.
Son, M. Van - "Opstanding" [Samuel Schwarz] De Vrijdagavond 8 Abr. 1932 -pp. 24-27
Lewel, Robert - "Les Maranes du Portugal" Archives Israelites 94 (1933): 105-6 (entrevista com Barros Basto)
Son, M. Van - "The Marranos part the curtains" - B'nai Brith Magazine (Nov. 1933): 53+
Blaustein, J. Maxim - "Ein Mahnruf aus Portugal: Keine neue Einwanderung moglich" - Israelitisches Familienblatt, 2 Jun. 1933, p. 10.
Lang, H. - "Spanische Reise zwischen Heute und Gestern" - Israelitisches Familienblatt, 14 Set. 1933, p. 14; 28 Set. 1933, p. 14.
--------------- "Kadoorie gift for synagogue in Oporto" Jewish Chronicle 24 Mar. 1933, p. 31.
--------------- "Portuguese help for Jews" Jewish Chronicle 25 Ago. 1933, p. 22.
Cohen, Israel - "Jews in the peninsula. II. The Lisbon community; Sefardi and Ashkenazi rivalries." Jewish Chronicle 14 Dez. 1934, p. 25.
-------------- - "oprichting van de Nederl. Pro-Marrano-Vereeniging." Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad, 22 Jun. 1934, p. 9; 29 Jun. 1934, p. 14; 26 Out. 1934, p. 3
Silva Rosa, Jacob S. da - "Reisbrieven uit Portugal" - Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad. 27 Jul 1934, p. 2; 4 Ago. 1934, p. 9; 10 Ago. 1934, p. 9; 17 Ago. 1934, p. 9; 7 Set. 1934, p. 17; 21 Set. 1934, p. 9.
------------------- "Rapid growth of Marranos" - American Hebrew, 18 Out. 1935, p. 372. assimado: C.J.
Son, M. Van - "Resurection" - Judaisme Sephardi no. 28 (Abr. 1935): 54-55.
Nedrel. Pro-Marrano Vereeniging - "Een noodkreet uit Braganca" - Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad 3 Mar., 1935, p. 1.
---------------------- "Among Portuguese Marranos. Former crypto Jews are now ardent adherents of ancient faith." American Hebrew, 11 Set. 1936, p. 295.
Son, M. Van - "Un office dans la synagogue des Marranes a Bragance" - Judaisme Sephardi no. 37 (Jan. 1936): 8-9.
---------------------- "Nederlansche Pro-Marrano Vereeniging" - Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad, 7 Fev. 1936, p. 5
World Jewish Congress, 1st., Geneve 1936 - Protocoles of the..., Geneve, 443p.
Son, M. Van - The Marranos at Oporto. Was a synagogue justified?" Jewish Chronicle 14 Jan. 1938 -p. 22.
---------------------- "Marrano synagogue in Oporto. Consecration service." - Jewish Chronicle, 21 Jan. 1938, p. 19.
Meller, Joseph - "The Marranos at Oporto" - Jewish Chronicle, 21 Jan. 1938, p. 19.
Laski, Neville Jonas - "The Portuguese Marranos" - The Jewish Chronicle, 4 Fev. 1938, p. 22
Son, M. Van - "The Marranos at Oporto" - Jewish Chronicle 11 Feb. 1938, p. 22
Goodman, Paul - "The Portuguese Marranos. Opening of Kadoorie Synagogue" - Jewish Forum 21 (1938): 22+
Ovadia, Nissim Joseph - "Inauguration a Porto du Temple 'Kadoorie' pour les marranes portugais" - Judaisme Sephardi no. 58 (Jan. 1938: 1-2.
Bar-David, Molly (Lyons) - "Marranos of Portugal today" Jerusalem Post, 12 Abr. 1966, p. 5.
Beller, Jacob - "Among Jewish and crypto-Jews in Portugal" - Jewish Life (May-June 1966): 31-41.
Bato, Yom-Tov Ludvig- "Die Diktator und die Marranen" - Das Neue Israel (Set. 1966): 165-66
Bethencourt, Cardoso - "The Jews in Portugal from 1973 to 1902" - The Jewish Quarterly Review XV (Jun. 1903):260 e seg.
Eitje, C. "The crypto-Jews in Portugal" - Ha-IIsha (Dez. 1930)
Lipiner, E. "O Cristao-Novo: mito ou realidade", in Y.Kaplan, editor, "Jews and Conversos" (Jerusalem, 1985)
Roth, Cecil -"A History of the Marranos" - Philadelphia 1932
Saa, Mario, "A Invasao dos Judeus" - Lisboa, 1924.
Salomon, Herman Prinz - "The Captain, the Abade and 20th. century 'marranism' in Portugal" - Paris, 1969
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